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Thesis format options

How to format a thesis to include published papers etc. 

General formatting information can be found in Instructions and Notes on Submission 

According to the Research Degree regulations (section 13, para 16), postgraduate research candidates can choose one of the following two formats for their thesis:



i.e. the thesis will be an integrated whole and present a coherent argument.

  • Research work already published, or submitted for publication, at the time of submission of the thesis, either by the student alone or jointly with others, may be integrated into the body of the thesis in a suitably adapted form.
  • Any publications derived from the work in the thesis may also be bound as supplementary material at the back of the thesis.

Format other than a monograph (alternative format)

e.g. as papers (including book chapters, journal articles, or conference proceedings)

  • Students wishing to present their thesis in this format may do so with the permission of their supervisor.  This must normally be confirmed at the time of the upgrade review

Please note that this option is not available for students presenting research in the field of Creative Writing or Poetic Practice.


 Thesis in a format other than a monograph (alternative format) FAQs

What should the thesis include?

In addition to the papers you wish to present, the thesis in a format other than a monograph should include the following:


Option A

At the start of the thesis:

    • a short introduction which provides the context of the research; and
    • the rationale for the investigation; and
    • the strategy employed during the research at the start of the thesis; and

At the end of the thesis:

    • a critical evaluation of the work presented in the thesis


Option B

At the start of the thesis, a longer introductory and the critical evaluation.

In either instance the critical evaluation should be a maximum of 15,000 words.

2      A detailed methodology section which describes the methods employed during the research with a detailed critical analysis of those methods making reference to the main thesis content derived from those methods. This should be a maximum of 8,000 words.

    A summary and conclusion which draws together, with the critical evaluation, the various outcomes of the work into a coherent synthesis and indicates directions for future work.

Is there a minimum / maximum number of papers I should include in the thesis?

This is not prescribed as articles will be of different lengths.  The key points to bear in mind are:

  • The content of the papers, together with the introduction, critical evaluation and methodology, must meet the requirements for the award of a PhD.
  • The overall length of the PhD should not exceed 100,000 words.
  • It is important to discuss the most appropriate format with your supervisor

Can I only include papers which have been published?

No – you can also include papers (book chapters, journal articles, or conference proceedings) which have been prepared / submitted for publication at the time of the submission of the thesis.

What pagination should I use for a thesis in a format other than a monograph?

  • Since a thesis presented in a format other than a monograph includes copies or offprints of journal articles, book chapters etc. which already have page numbers, the pages of these items will not be included in the pagination sequence of the submission.
  • The thesis may also include work that has been submitted for publication or is still in preparation for publication that does not yet have publishers’ page numbers.
  • For all these items candidates should insert a page before each on which is displayed the full bibliographic citation of the publication (or the details of the work submitted or in preparation including the total number of manuscript pages), and the page number of the thesis. 
  • For example, if the publication’s section starts on p.75, insert a page before the first item on which is printed the full details of the item and p.75.  The first item will then follow, with its own pagination. Before the second item insert another page on which is printed the full details of the second item and p.76, and so on.




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Instructions and notes on submission

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